This is another excerpt from Bill Warner’s book Abridged Koran where the verses of Koran are arranged in their chronological order and provided with facts from prophet Muhammad’s life, giving context for them. The last chapter, Conclusions, doesn’t contain any more Koran verses, but this is interesting and useful material.
The Koran advances a logical system. Truth is determined by revelation. No fact or argument may refute the Koran. Logical persuasion is based upon repetition and continued assertion. Another part of the persuasion is personal attacks against those who resist Islam. The Koran advances its argument through threats against specific people and groups. If persuasion fails, then force may be used to settle the logical or political argument.
Another aspect of Koranic logic is the use of name calling and personal insults to advance the truth. The Koran, with its poetical language and repeated threats and physical violence, bases its logic on emotions. Although its intellectual truth can be contradictory, the contradictions do not need to be resolved. Understanding apparent contradictions is a key to understanding Islamic logic. In unitary logic, a contradiction shows the theory or argument is false. But in the Koran, a contradiction does not prove an argument to be false. What appears to be logical contradictions are statements of duality that offer two true choices, depending upon the circumstances. This is a dualistic logic.
How do we know that the Koran is true? Because it contains the words of Allah. How do we know that these are the words of Allah? Mohammed said they were Allah’s words. How do we know that Mohammed is Allah’s messenger? Mohammed reported that Allah said that Mohammed is His messenger. The foundational assumption of Islam is based on circular reasoning.