This is another excerpt from Bill Warner’s book Abridged Koran where the verses of Koran are arranged in their chronological order and provided with facts from prophet Muhammad’s life, giving context for them.
CHAPTER 14 JIHAD, A SETBACK (continued)
THE KORAN AND THE BATTLE OF UHUD
Since Allah had sent angels to the previous battle of Badr and the outnumbered Muslims triumphed, how could they fail at Uhud?
Two of the clans of Muslims had doubts about the battle. But Allah was their friend and they did not doubt Islam and went on into the battle because of their belief in Allah and Mohammed.
3:121 Remember when you [Mohammed] left your home early in the morning to lead the believers to their battle stations [battle of Uhud]? Allah heard and knew all. When two of your brigades showed cowardice, Allah protected them both. Let the faithful put their trust in Allah. Allah made you victorious at Badr when you were the weaker army. Therefore, fear Allah and be grateful to Him. Then you said to the believers, “Is it not enough for you that your Lord helped you by sending down three thousand angels?” Yes! And if you stand firm and fear Allah and you are suddenly attacked by your enemies, Allah will send down five thousand angels to wreak havoc upon them.
3:126 Allah intended this to be good news for you so your hearts will know peace. Victory comes from Allah alone, He is mighty and wise so that He might destroy a portion of the unbelievers, humiliate them, and keep them from their purpose. It is none of your concern whether He forgives them or punishes them for, truly, they are evil-doers. All that is in the heaven and earth belongs to Allah. He will forgive whom He pleases and punish whom He pleases. Allah is forgiving and merciful.
The reason for the loss was that the archers did not hold their ground, When they saw that the Meccans were cut off from their camp, they ran to get the spoils of war. Greed caused them to disobey Mohammed. So they should always obey Mohammed, he speaks for the Lord of all. Those who did not follow orders should ask for forgiveness. If they will see that it was their fault and be remorseful they can still get their reward of heaven.
3:131 Obey Allah and His messenger so that you may receive mercy. Urge each other on to earn forgiveness from your Lord, and the Paradise as wide as heaven and earth is prepared for the righteous. Those who give freely, whether they are prosperous or poor; who control their anger; who are forgiving (for Allah loves those who do good); who, when they have sinned or wronged themselves, go to Allah and implore His forgiveness for their sins (for who except Allah can forgive you of your sins?) and do not knowingly continue in their sinning; these will be rewarded with their Lord’s forgiveness and with the Garden watered by flowing rivers where they will live forever. The reward is great for those who serve Him!
3:137 There have been many religions that have come and gone before you. Travel the world and see what became of those who rejected the faith. The Koran is a clear statement for mankind: a guide and a warning to those who fear Allah. Therefore, do not lose heart or despair; if you are a true believer, you will be victorious.
The reason that Allah let the Meccans win was to test the Muslims. Now they will know their true selves. Are they fair weather friends of Mohammed or can they see their faults? If they obey Mohammed, then they can become true Muslims. A true Muslim never loses his morale, never falls into despair.
If you have been wounded or suffered losses in the battle, don’t forget that the non-Muslims have also suffered. Over the long view, fortunes go up and down. You must take the long view and believe in Mohammed and know that all will turn out well in the end. But those who died have the best reward. They are martyrs for Islam. Those who do wrong are the hypocrites, the pretenders.
3:140 If you have been wounded [Muslims lost the battle of Uhud], be certain that the same has already befallen your enemies. We bring misfortune to mankind in turns so that Allah can discern who are the true believers, and so that We may select martyrs from among you. Allah does not love those who do evil. It is also Allah’s purpose to test the believers and to destroy the unbelievers.